Information of the State Council:
Provincial Government Information:
Building a national demonstration city for national solidarity and progress
popular science knowledge
What happens when earthquakes come?
[ Author: Release time: 2016-06-16 16:37. Source: Kunming earthquake prevention and disaster reduction Bureau ]

1, what preparations should the units do before the earthquake?

For the units before the earthquake, the earthquake emergency measures should be formulated in combination with the specific circumstances of the units, and the seismic performance of buildings should be inspected, demolition of dangerous buildings and dangerous buildings, repair and reinforcement of buildings with poor seismic performance, inspection of important departments for reinforcement and construction of secondary disasters, and a detailed evacuation plan.

2, how do families prepare for indoor earthquake preparedness?

For families, we should determine in advance the places to escape at home during the earthquake, the evacuation routes, the locations for outside shocks and the methods of liaison. Those who live in high-rise buildings should be familiar with safety passageways, safety doors and staircases. Never take an elevator during an earthquake.

At the same time, we should pay attention to the following points:

(1) fixing tall furniture to prevent dumping and smashing people. Furniture and objects should be placed below and lightly on top. Do not pile heavy objects above high furniture.

(2) remove or fasten the hanging objects such as lamps and clocks, so as to prevent falling and injure people.

(3) clean up the debris and make the doorway and courtyard passageway clear.

(4) place the bed near the inner wall (load-bearing wall), away from the roof beam and the hanging luminaire.

(5) organize family one minute emergency evacuation, evacuation and evacuation exercises.

(6) prepare for a certain amount of food and daily necessities in order to tide over the difficulties in the early days after the earthquake, and prepare the shockproof emergency packs to carry with them, and arrange emergency items (such as drugs, food, beverages, flashlights, respirators, etc.) and place them in accessible places so that they can be carried with them when the earthquake occurs.

(7) each family member's pocket is preferably fitted with a small first aid card, giving name, address, unit, telephone, blood type, contact person and other contents, which is convenient for others to rescue.

3, what is earthquake rumor? How did it happen?

Earthquake rumor is an earthquake rumor which has no basis in fact and spread through the informal way. The root causes are: first, the fear of earthquake; two, the lack of necessary knowledge of earthquake science; three, the earthquake prediction is not yet passed, or the misunderstandings caused by some one sidedness in propaganda work.

Earthquake rumors are extremely harmful, and the psychological abnormalities they cause to people and their impact on social and economic construction are often very serious.

For earthquake rumors, we must first investigate and study their sources, find out the truth and grasp the ways and means of communication, scale, scope of coverage, social influence and so on. We should grasp the policy nature, explain the truth to the masses, eliminate the future trouble, and adopt positive measures to organize and publicize the scientific information so as to quickly suppress the rumor so as to ensure the social stability and the normal development of economic construction.

4, how to identify earthquake rumors?

(1) where there is a feudal superstition or a strange legend.

(2) anyone who tells us that a seismological department is a foreigner is a fraud.

(3) where the earthquake magnitude is very large, or the magnitude is very accurate, such as 8.3, 8.1, and the time of earthquake occurrence and location are very clear.

(4) Whoever travels under the banner of an expert or the prediction of a seismological institution is not allowed to pass the normal way and the propagator of the trail is mostly false.

5, how to deal with earthquake rumors?

Learning the common sense of earthquakes, eliminating the fear of earthquake and correctly understanding the actual level of earthquake prediction at home and abroad are the basis for seeing the earthquake rumors. At present, the prediction of the time, place and magnitude of earthquake can only be given a range, which can not be very accurate and specific. However, the power to issue earthquake prediction messages in China is not authorized by any government or any other unit or individual. Therefore, when you hear the earthquake prediction message, do not believe it, nor do you want to report it to the local government or seismological department.

6, how to judge when earthquakes come?

When the earthquake happens, houses vibrate and shake, causing people's emotional tension and fear to run instinctively. This is wrong. Because if it is a distant earthquake or a small earthquake, it will not cause houses to collapse, do not run; if near earthquakes or great earthquakes, houses shake very violently, stand unsteadily, and do not want to run in a moment. Therefore, the correct approach is to calm down, first of all, according to the feeling of vibration, quickly judge.

Close to the great earthquake, we feel that the ground is vibrant up and down, and the left and right sides swaying. People can not walk or even stand firm. The small earthquakes at a distance are less light and the left and right sides of the ground. When the long-range earthquake occurs, the ground feels above and below the vibration. After a few seconds, the ground trembles. According to the vibration situation, the countermeasures should be decided.

7, how do people avoid earthquake when they come to earthquake?

Seismic practice shows that in the epicentral area, from earthquake to housing collapse, there are usually more than ten seconds, when people can take advantage of this short moment to take emergency measures to avoid danger. People who are too late to evacuated to the outside can adjust themselves to local conditions and avoid earthquakes. The practice of the great earthquake has proved that solid furniture and small span rooms are temporary hiding places.

People in buildings, when encountering destructive earthquakes, must quickly keep away from the walls and doors and windows, and do not run to the balcony. They can choose small spaces that are not easy to collapse, such as kitchens, bathrooms, toilets and so on. They can also form Fang Bizhen, which is easy to form triangular space near the inner walls, corners, and solid furniture, and can also hide under the table. Never break windows, jump buildings or use elevators.

When an earthquake occurs at night, don't panic when you wake up. Immediately cover your body with a quilt and hide under the solid furniture, such as the bed or desk. If time is available, you can hide in a small kitchen or bathroom. After the earthquake, it should be evacuated to the open area. It is better not to use elevators to evacuate in case of power failure or other accidents.

Residents living in a flat house must act decisively and avoid nearby when they are in an earthquake. If there is no obstacle, no danger or narrow lane near the door, it can be rushed out of the house immediately and transferred to the place where it has been taken into consideration. Don't rush back indoors in a short time. If you are too late to run out of the house, you can quickly hide under the table, under the bed and next to the wall or under the strong furniture, protect the key parts of the body, cover your mouth and nose with towels or clothes, and turn off the gas switch and power when you use fire, and then quickly avoid it. In this way, even if the building collapses, it can avoid casualties or suffocation because of the residual walls and furniture support.

8, how to avoid danger in the outdoors during the earthquake?

When an earthquake occurs, if it is in the open air, it should immediately leave the narrow streets, tall buildings, poles, transformers, tall chimneys and other dangerous areas, and use the items or hands around the head to protect the head, and choose to open or squatting down to avoid falling down. After the earthquake, it will be moved to the safe areas and evacuation areas when the area is relatively open, so as to prevent the buildings from collapsing, but the buildings that have not collapsed will be damaged or injured by falling objects.

People in the field should quickly leave the river, dam or bridge to prevent the collapse of the river bank and the collapse of the dam. To avoid mountain slopes and steep cliffs, in order to prevent landslides, rolling stones, landslides, debris flows, etc., in case of landslides and landslides, we should quickly avoid both sides of the rolling stones. We must not run down the rolling stones to the mountains. We can not avoid earthquakes under bridges or tunnels so as to avoid casualties caused by landslides.

The train and vehicle being driven should be slowed down and stopped to prevent dumping. Passengers sitting on the vehicle should grasp the handrail or chair to avoid falling or bruising, and prevent the luggage from falling down from the rack. The person facing the direction of the traffic should lean his arms on the cushion of the front seat, his body tends to pass through the road, and his hands protect his head. Those who are heading in the direction of the traffic should protect their rear brain with two hands, and raise their knees and protect their abdomen. If the car is on the bridge, leave as soon as possible.

9, how to prevent earthquakes?

A large number of earthquake cases show that schools are most vulnerable to disasters during an earthquake. To prepare for the school's earthquake preparedness, we should first learn and publicize the knowledge of earthquake preparedness and disaster reduction, offer lectures on earthquake knowledge, organize teachers and students to watch video and video on earthquake prevention, arrange the routes and venues for students to transfer and evacuate, and second, conduct earthquake prevention training under the guidance of teachers, such as indoor "one minute emergency shelter", post earthquake evacuation classroom exercises, self-help and mutual rescue training. Xi et al.

Teachers should keep calm during the earthquake and instruct students to take proper measures. Students in class should quickly hide under their desks and podium beside their heads. Students in teaching buildings can avoid them in a small room supported by pipes. In the playground, students can sit still and keep their hands in the head. Avoid tall buildings or dangerous things.

Students must not be allowed to run around or rush to the stairs, and avoid jumping off buildings to avoid casualties. After the earthquake, we should evacuate orderly under the command of teachers.

10, how to avoid earthquakes in public places?

In large shopping malls, hotels, hotels and other public places when earthquakes occur, do not panic and run around, crowd around and rush to the exit. Keep calm and choose to hide. Try to avoid the display cabinets, avoid tall or unstable shelves or place heavy objects and fragile items, hide near the columns, next to the large items or under the table and chair, then squat down, and protect the head with hands or other items. Orderly evacuation along the safe passage after the earthquake.

In the theaters and gymnasiums, they must not rush to the door, or they will cause serious casualties by trampling on each other. You should quickly hide beside the seat and evacuate along the exit after orderly after the earthquake.

11, how to avoid shock in factory workshop?

Workers who work in a factory workshop should immediately turn off the power supply and gas gate and switch, and then close to the machine under the stop.

Workers engaged in high temperature and high pressure on special posts should immediately turn off flammable and explosive valves during the earthquake, and timely reduce the temperature and pressure of high temperature and high pressure pipes, and turn off the running equipment. The steel workers next to the blast furnace should avoid the furnace door and molten steel trough to avoid burns and scalds, while avoiding the major parts of the head so as to avoid falling and damaging them. The positions related to chemical substances should be quickly isolated and fixed with different chemical properties and flammable substances, and quickly extinguish the sources of such sources as alcohol lamps and electric stoves. Workers in chemical plants should take measures to prevent leakage of flammable, poisonous gases or strong acids and strong alkales. High temperature and high pressure piping systems should adopt measures such as lowering temperature, lowering pressure and shutting down, limiting reaction, and cutting off mechanical parts. For the purpose of producing toxic gas, the valves for producing and storing toxic gases should be shut down quickly to prevent leakage. Where bacteria are involved, the culture medium and bacteria should be placed in a safe place quickly, and protective measures should be taken to prevent proliferation.

12, what happens when we encounter a fire or a gas leak during an earthquake?

When a strong earthquake happens, it often causes fires, floods, poisonous gas spreading, plagues and so on. Therefore, residents must turn off the gas, extinguish the fire and cut off the power before evacuating the house, so as to prevent fire. When a gas leak occurs, use a wet towel to cover your mouth and nose. Never use an open flame and try to transfer it after the earthquake. When you encounter a fire in an earthquake, lie prone on the ground, cover your mouth and nose with a wet towel, crawl against the wind and move to a safe place. When a poisonous gas leaks, you should wind around the upper wind direction and cover your mouth and nose with a wet towel.

13, what is self rescue and mutual rescue after the earthquake? What are the methods of self-help and mutual help?

Self rescue means that the buried personnel use their own conditions to eliminate danger and preserve life. If the burial is lighter, according to the specific circumstances, look for vulnerable parts that can save themselves from danger and escape as soon as possible. If they can not escape, they should try to get rid of their hands and feet, remove objects that are pressed on themselves, cover their mouth and nose as soon as possible, prevent soot from suffocating, wait for rescue, keep sober minded, not shout for help, and use stones or iron tools to strike objects to contact with the outside world. Physical strength, prolong life; use brick, wood and other objects to support possible falling objects and protect the living space. If unable to save themselves from danger, reduce physical energy consumption as much as possible and wait for rescue.

Mutual aid refers to the rescue of those who survived the disaster. In the disaster area, the relief groups will gradually develop from individuals to different sizes. At the same time, there will also be a form of rescue which is close to the future and easy for the future. The general method is to listen to and identify the voice of the cries, groans, and percussion of the trapped persons. According to the structure of the houses, we should first locate the trapped persons, then rescue them to prevent accidents; rescue those survivors who are easy to be rescued in time, and expand the teams of mutual rescue. When rescuing them, we should first expose their heads, quickly remove the dust in the mouth and nose, and prevent suffocation. Emergency treatment. It is not possible to scrape the scraps with a sharp tool, protect the support and prevent further collapse. For the survivors who are buried in the ruins for a long time, they should first deliver food and water, then dig and support them. Pay special attention to protecting the eyes of the survivors (sudden light will blinding). The whole body slowly moved out and was delivered to the medical point with a hardwood stretcher.

14, what if we are pressed after the earthquake?

After the earthquake, aftershocks will continue to occur. Your environment may deteriorate further. You should try to improve your environment, stabilize and try to get out of danger.

Try to avoid the sturdy collapses, hangings or other dangerous materials above the body.

Remove the movable debris and tile and expand the activity space. Note that when moving, do not force to prevent further debris from falling around.

Try to support broken walls with bricks and stones, so as to prevent them from being buried again during aftershocks.

Do not use indoor facilities at any time, including power, water and so on.

Try to cover your mouth and nose with damp clothes when you smell gas and toxic odors.

Don't yell, keep your strength, and use a percussion for help.

15, what is the scientific way to excavate buried people?

The housing collapse caused by the earthquake is the main cause of casualties. When we save the earthquake, we must try our best to rescue those who are buried in the ruins as soon as possible.

Attention should be paid to excavating buried persons.

First of all, we should use the fastest speed to expose the injured person's head and remove the foreign body in the nasal cavity, keep breathing unobstructed, then expose the chest and abdomen, if there is asphyxia, immediately take artificial respiration.

When excavating, we should distinguish between the supporting objects, which are buried obstacles, protect the supporting objects, remove the obstructing objects, and protect the space of the buried ones from being overloaded.

When a buried person is unable to come out by himself, he should not drag himself out to prevent further damage.

For those with spinal injuries, avoid spinal injuries once again. After rescue from the ruins, a hard stretcher or door plate should be used when transporting and transporting. It is absolutely forbidden to bend or twist the spine, not one shoulder lifting, one leg lifting to avoid causing paralysis.

All limbs fractures and joint injuries should be made locally, splint and fixation should be made. The end of the injured limb should be exposed to observe the circulation of blood.

Temporarily unable to rescue, should carry out ventilation under the ruins of the space, delivery of beverages, waiting for the opportunity to rescue. The method of sprinkling and dust removal is adopted to avoid dust flying and suffocate.

In order to gain more time to save more burying people, it is not appropriate to concentrate their efforts on a buried person. After determining the location of all the buried persons nearby, the first person to expose the head and chest and abdomen is first to get out of danger and rescue again.

We should give full play to the role of health workers in rural hospitals and professional training militias in rescuing casualties caused by earthquakes.

16, what principles should be grasped when excavating rescue personnel?

1, first and then difficult; 2, first close to the far; 3, first light injury after serious injury; 4, first save the living after digging the dead; 5, as far as possible to save young adults and medical workers; 6, for the shallow buried, the injury is not heavy, the head and chest exposed, temporary placement, first rescue the surrounding buried.

17, how to find the target of buried pressure?

1, find someone familiar with the situation; 2, in accordance with local living habits or in the vicinity of doors and windows; 3, dialogue and contact with the buried pressure percussion devices; 4, bend over the ruins to listen carefully; 5, as far as possible with the help of all effective tools or means; 6, do not easily leave to find the target and environment; 7, organized separate sub contractors to find.

18, how many kinds of artificial respiration methods are needed to rescue the suffocating wounded?

1, mouth to mouth blowing method; 2, supine pressing chest method; 3, cardiac extrusion; 4, acupuncture therapy; the above methods can be alternated.

19, what should the community do after the earthquake?

In addition to people's self-help and spontaneous rescue, the rapid response of the community is also very important after the earthquake. Because this is where people gather. We should set up an emergency command and coordination team quickly, immediately organize the rescue work in the community, report the disaster quickly and win outside support; organize a fire brigade to investigate hidden dangers and extinguish fires as much as possible and maintain community order.

20. How do social units respond to an earthquake?

After the earthquake, all the leaders of the units should arrive at the units quickly and organize emergency and disaster relief work. The factories and enterprises should focus on rescuing the workers in the first line of production, such as workshops, to prevent secondary disasters and to extinguish secondary disasters. The units that are related to Lifeline facilities should quickly form professional rescue teams in accordance with the government's unified plan. We should take effective measures to prevent the occurrence of secondary disasters or to prevent the spread of secondary disasters. The hospitals should take good care of the existing patients, and quickly deploy the medical rescue teams to receive the tasks and implement medical assistance. Organize orderly evacuation after risk aversion; report disaster and emergency situations to relevant departments at high speed, and strive for external support.

21. What are the functions of the asylum? What should we pay attention to when we open up shelters?

Shelter is an important temporary place for urban residents to live and live after the earthquake. From a community point of view, there are two main functions.

1, after the government issued short-term and imminent earthquake prediction, the community may, in accordance with the deployment and requirements of the relevant departments, evacuate personnel to pre determined shelters in an organized and planned way so as to avoid casualties caused by the collapse of buildings when the great earthquake comes.

2, after the great earthquake, thousands of people were left homeless due to housing destruction and building collapse. Asylum became a community disaster relief center, command center and disaster shelter. It is a link between residents and the government.

We should pay attention to the following points in opening up refuge sites: 1. Shelter should be an open area away from buildings and tall buildings; 2, shelter should be a gymnasium, cinema, school and other places with better seismic performance, which will help the victims to avoid cold, avoid the sun and shelter from rain. However, these buildings must be inspected and identified before taking refuge. 3, we must determine the amount of evacuating personnel; 4, evacuate must have more than two entries, to ensure the smooth road around the site.

22. What should we pay attention to when we build the shelter?

(1) we must be quakeproof and economical and practical. We must make every effort in accordance with local conditions.

(2) pay special attention to fire prevention, strengthen vigilance management and strictly control fire sources.

(3) to avoid dangerous buildings, chimneys, high voltage lines, dangerous cliffs, steep slopes, river scouring, and river banks in mountainous areas, do not build roads and public places that obstruct traffic.

(4) to have basic functions such as shockproof, rain proof, cold proof, fire prevention, anti-theft, ventilation and so on.

(5) temporary residents' committees should be formed to strengthen the management of temporary residential areas. The Convention on fire prevention, theft prevention, epidemic prevention and aftershock should be formulated. We should manage well public toilet and garbage stations and manage environmental hygiene.

23, urban residents' awareness of earthquake prevention

(1) maintain stability. Even if the earthquake is very violent, as long as nothing falls from the height, the danger will be reduced.

(2) if you are indoors during an earthquake, please hide at the bottom of the table, bed or near the wall as soon as possible.

(3) in tall buildings, you should not take the elevator and run to the street with the fastest speed. If you are in the elevator, you should immediately stop the elevator and get out of the elevator quickly.

(4) if there are cigarette butts or other inflammable materials, it should be extinguished first, because the most likely fire is after the earthquake.

(5) if the earthquake is outside, it should run to the open space until the earthquake is completely stopped.

(6) when running to the open space, do not run around the road or outside the building, for there may be objects falling from the sky.

(7) in the tunnel when the earthquake occurs, the tunnel should be speeded up at a safe speed immediately.

(8) after the earthquake, it is necessary to check immediately whether there is any casualty and then see if the facilities are damaged, such as water pipes, gas, electricity and so on. If there is any difference, the Department concerned should be repaired. For safety reasons, we should turn on the television or radio to further understand the latest earthquake situation.